# Curve Models

Decaf and Ristretto make use of three curve shapes: Jacobi quartic, twisted Edwards, and Montgomery, and isogenies between them.

## The Jacobi Quartic

The Jacobi quartic curve is parameterized by $$e, A$$, and is of the form $$\mathcal J_{e,A} : t^2 = es^4 + 2As^2 + 1,$$ with identity point $$(0,1)$$. For more details on the Jacobi quartic, see the Decaf paper or Jacobi Quartic Curves Revisited by Hisil, Wong, Carter, and Dawson).

When $$e = a^2$$ is a square, $$\mathcal J_{e,A}$$ has full $$2$$-torsion (i.e., $$\mathcal J \cong \mathbb Z /2 \times \mathbb Z/2$$), and we can write the $$\mathcal J$$-coset of a point $$P = (s,t)$$ as $$P + \mathcal J = \left\{ (s,t), (-s,-t), (1/as, -t/as^2), (-1/as, t/as^2) \right\}.$$ Notice that replacing $$a$$ by $$-a$$ just swaps the last two points, so this set does not depend on the choice of $$a$$.

## Twisted Edwards Curves

Twisted Edwards curves are parameterized by $$a, d$$ and are of the form $$\mathcal E_{a,d} : ax^2 + y^2 = 1 + dx^2y^2.$$ These are usually represented by the Extended Twisted Edwards Coordinates of Hisil, Wong, Carter, and Dawson: points are represented in projective coordinates as $$(X:Y:Z:T)$$ with $$XY = ZT, \quad aX^2 + Y^2 = Z^2 + dT^2.$$ (More details on Edwards curve models can be found in the curve25519_dalek curve_models documentation). The case $$a = 1$$ is the untwisted case; the case $$a = -1$$ provides the fastest formulas. When not otherwise specified, we write $$\mathcal E$$ for $$\mathcal E_{a,d}$$.

When both $$d$$ and $$ad$$ are nonsquare (which forces $$a$$ to be square), the curve is complete. In this case the four-torsion subgroup is cyclic, and we can write it explicitly as $$\mathcal E_{a,d} = \{ (0,1),\; (1/\sqrt a, 0),\; (0, -1),\; (-1/\sqrt{a}, 0)\}.$$ These are the only points with $$xy = 0$$; the points with $$y \neq 0$$ are $$2$$-torsion.

## Montgomery Curves

Montgomery curves are parameterized by $$B, A$$ with $$B \neq 0$$ and $$A^2 \neq 4$$ and are of the form $\mathcal M_{B,A} : Bv^2 = u(u^2 + Au + 1),$ with the identity point at infinity. More details can be found in the Decaf paper or in Montgomery curves and their arithmetic by Costello and Smith.